ՍԿԻԶԲ ԱՐԽԻՎ ԽՈՐԱԳԻՐ
 
ԴՊԻՐ 45
ՄԱՍՆԱԳԻՏԱԿԱՆ ԶԱՐԳԱՑՈՒՄ

Ուսումնական բնագավառներ


Դիջիտեք-ը Երևանի «Մխիթար Սեբաստացի» կրթահամալիրում

Նունե Մովսիսյան
Հայոց լեզվի, գրականության ուսուցման արդյունավետության գնահատում

Հասմիկ Ղազարյան
Մեդիալրագրություն

Հասմիկ Նալբանդյան
Էկոլոգիայի ուսուցում էկոլոգիական նախագծերի իրականացմամբ

Յուրա Գանջալյան
Ուսուցման առարկան` օտար լեզու և ոչ թե լեզվի մասին գիտելիք

Yura Ganjalyan
To teach the language and not some knowledge about the language

Մեթոդական մշակումներ

Карине Агамян
Пословицы и поговорки как средство обучения

Жанна Акопян
Качество обучения русскому языку и контроль учебных достижений учащихся


Մեդիաօլիմպիադա

Աշոտ Տիգրանյան
12-րդ դասարանում ուսուցման կազմակերպման կարգ


Մեդիակրթության առանցքային տեսությունները

Ուսումնական նյութեր


Խաչատուր Աբովյանը և մաթեմատիկան

Պաուլո Կոելիո
Լույսի զինվորի գիրքը

Ծիսական տոնացույց


Գյուտ խաչի տոն



ՄԱՆԿԱՎԱՐԺԱԿԱՆ ՄՈՏԵՑՈՒՄՆԵՐ

Շալվա Ամոնաշվիլի
Որտե՞ղ ես, ժպիտ իմ

ՏԱՐԲԵՐ ԵՐԿՐՆԵՐԻ ԴՊՐՈՑՆԵՐԸ

ՀԱՅԱՍՏԱՆԻ ԴՊՐՈՑՆԵՐԸ


Հանրակրթական ԴիջիԹեք 2012

Հասմիկ Բարսեղյան, Մերի Խանջյան
Կարի և մոդելավորման, գործվածքի, գորգ-կարպետի արտադրությամբ ուսուցման արհեստանոց

Հերմինե Կոստանյան
Սովորողների մասնագիտական հմտությունների զարգացում ուսումնաարտադրական արհեստանոցում

ՓՈՔՐԵՐՆ ՈՒ ՄԵԾԵՐԸ (մանկավարժական ակումբ)

Կոնստանտին Շերեմետև
Թաքնված ինքնախղճահարություն

ԱՐՁԱԳԱՆՔ

Աննա Մանուկյան
Տետրից notebook

Սեդա Խաչատրյան
Մսուրի երեխաներից մինչև ուսուցիչները մասնակցում են

Նաիրա Ավագյան
Սովորության, անխուսափելի կարգի վերածված արարողություն

Տաթև Մելքոնյան
Սովորական օլիմպիադա չէ

Անահիտ Ավագյան
Մեծ դեր ունի մեդիագրադարանը

Աննա Էլնազարյան
Օտար լեզուների ուսումնական պլանը դառնում է ավելի ճկուն

Эста Симонян, Анна Мкртумян
Медиабиблиотека

Shahane Nikolayan
Teaching English by fitting lessons for mixed ability classes

Հայկազ Մարգարյան, Արսեն Գալստյան
Հոկտեմբերյան հավաքին ներկայացված մանկավարժական ծրագրերի փորձագիտական եզրակացություն

Լուսինե Բարսեղյան
Մեդիագրադրան

Աշխեն Գրիգորյան, Հասմիկ Ղազարյան, Հայարփի Տոնոյան, Արմինե Մնացականյան
Առավոտյան ընդհանուր պարապմունք

Անահիտ Հարությունյան
«Նոթբուքն ինձ դասընկեր» ծրագիրն անհրաժեշտ է
To teach the language and not some knowledge about the language

Հոդվածը հայերեն

 

At elementary and middle schools we should teach the learners the language and not some knowledge about the language.

While teaching a foreign language we pay attention to the following aspects: pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, speaking, reading and writing. The most important of them at the initial stage of teaching is hearing and speaking. This is so, first of all, because of it’s being both the aim and the basic means of teaching the target language. In teaching oral speech we have to avoid the so called direct method of teaching and the grammar translational method. We should follow the oral comprehensive method taking into consideration all the main principles of didactics. 

The oral speech exercises, drills, short dialogues and conversations should develop the pupils' short term and long term memory and arouse interest in the subject matter being taught. In other words each lesson should have true psychological and linguistic basis.
At the initial stage the pupils should be drilled in uttering statements with the verb to be. Afterwards the teacher stimulates them to extend these sentences by adding a word or two. 

Then the pupils are ready to combine these statements and describe the objects surrounding them. At the initial stage the pupils themselves are the centre of the suggested topic for short dialogues and conversations. The teacher should support the lessons with audio-visual aids as much as possible in the most comprehensive way. Only in this way can the starting point be effective.
As L.G. Alexander has stated in the preface of his “Practice and progress” the teacher’s efforts should not be directed at informing his students about a language, but at enabling them to use it. A student’s mastery of a language is ultimately measured by how well he can use it, not by how much he knows about it. 

We must avoid teaching the pupils grammar rules isolated from oral speech. We mustn’t state for hundreds of times that the English language has a special word order where the subject of a given sentence stands ahead. We must simply make the pupils utter speech patterns with the required word order for hundreds of times. After having done this work we can introduce small situations which are formed with the initially taught speech patterns. Only in this way we can avoid difficulties caused by the settled speech habits of the mother tongue.
In this paper I have tried to give the system of exercises suggested by many progressive scholars and used by skilled English teachers. These exercises have the purpose of developing oral speech, habits and skills of speaking. A special attention has been paid to the psychological and linguistic basis of these exercises. 


Psychological Basis of the Activities Developing Speaking Skills at Elementary and Middle Schools


Psychological theories of of interest, of attention, of associations of ideas, and of memory are of utmost importance in the process of teaching a foreign language.  
In order to arouse the pupils’ interest the speech material must be motivated and should correspond to the age peculiarities of the pupils. It should be neither too childish nor too abstract.
For example such sentences as: “The pen is on the table”, and “The progressive people all over the world fight for their constitutional rights” must be avoided during the lessons in the 6th and 7th forms.
At the initial stage of teaching a foreign language the pupils are not expected to produce their own free speech. They are only expected to choose among the drilled ready made speech forms and use them.

Sample exercises: 

a) My father is reading.
My brother is working.
My sister – (eat)

The pupil is expected to say – My sister is eating

My friend (speak)

While doing this exercise the pupils produce sentences using the present Continuous tense. The subject being in the third person singular, the verb to be in the form of is and the ing form are consolidated in the pupils' memory. And if we drill this form periodically we’ll be able to put it into the pupil’s long term memory and our aim will be achieved.

An exercise of completing the partner’s speech.

- We skate and ski in winter, but in summer…
The pupil is expected to say:
We swim in summer.
While doing this exercise the pupil’s attention isn’t concentrated on the grammatical form of the Present Indefinite Tense. It’s the contents that matters here.

To maintain a proper psychological background while teaching we should take into consideration the following principles of teaching a foreign language: 

the principle of Consciousness,
the principle of activeness,
the principle of visuality,
the principle of Consecutiveness, 
the principle of Accessibility

The principle of conscious approach is maintained through the whole course of teaching oral speech. The pupils must understand everything being said at the given moment. If it is not possible to explain anything in English so that the pupils could understand the teacher, it should be done with the help of the mother tongue. We can't use entirely direct method which demands 16-17 hours a week for a good result. Every step of the teacher, every model of drill exercises should be comprehended by the pupils because we are limited in time. We can't wait for the pupil to acquire the skill and habit of speaking like the child acquires its mother tongue. We should direct our pupils with the language rules. But these language rules mustn't be taught theoretically. They must be taught through practice.

The principle of activity is maintained by conducting the lesson mainly in a student-centered way. Each pupil in class should feel busy acquiring knowledge at every moment of the lesson. The method of checking the students' knowledge by making them narrate a long text, should be avoided. All the pupils must be involved in the lesson and in the act of communication. The pupils must work in small groups or in pairs. Work in chorus may be practiced when a new sound or the pronunciation of a difficult word is taught. Small groups or pairs may be formed for the consolidation of newly drilled speech patterns in small conversations or dialogues. 

The principle of visualization. It has been proved by psychologists that the more sense perceptions take part in the process of acquiring knowledge the better is the result. If the lesson is conducted with this principle, it comes emotionally colored, and the pupils get interested in it very soon. Most modern English text-books are illustrated. Even the grammar rules are illustrated. In addition to these illustrations the text-books are supplied with audio-visual materials and aids throughout the whole course. Wall pictures are also widely used at the initial stage of teaching.

The Principle of Consecutiveness. From the known to the unknown, from the simpler to the more complex, and from the proximate to the more distant: These statements should be the main directory in the teacher’s work. 


The above mentioned First three principles can be adhered by doing the Following exercises at the initial stage of teaching.


1. Answering by acting type of exercises
The teacher expresses some commands, requests, orders and the pupil performs them saying in a loud voice what he or she is doing at the given moment. He does it consciously. The whole class are listening to the teacher, watching the performer’s actions and listening to his or her sentences in the Present Continuous Tense.

Here are some other exercises used in developing oral speech at the initial stage of teaching. 

a) Repetition of sentences uttered by the teacher with a certain communicative colouring.
Teacher: I often play chess.
Pupil: I often play chess too.
Teacher: I like winter very much.
Pupil: I like spring very much.
Teacher: Are you going to the cinema.
Pupil: No, I am not going to the cinema.
Are you going to the theatre?
Yes, I am going to the theatre.
b) The so called “Wrong statements” exercises.
Teacher: It is hot in winter.
Pupil: No, it is not hot in winter.
It is cold in winter.
Teacher: He is a girl.
Pupil: No, he is not a girl
He is a boy.
c) Exercises in guessing a word 
Teacher: I have got something in my bag. What is it?
Pupil: Is it a book?
Teacher: No, it is not.
Pupil: Is it a pencil?
Teacher: No, it is not.
Pupil: Is it an exercise-book?
Teacher: Yes, it is.
d) Completing sentences.
Teacher: I like to…
Pupil: I like to eat ice-cream
Pupil: I like to draw.
Pupil: I like to play football.
Teacher: I don’t want to…
Pupil: I don’t want to drink milk.
Pupil: I don’t want to play chess.

At the initial stage of teaching Special attention is to be paid to learning short dialogues by the pupils. The dialogues are supposed to be formed with already drilled grammatical and lexical structures. Dialogues mustn’t be formed with abstract, philosophical thoughts. They must be connected with the pupils’ activities, their own ideas and way of life. In other words they must bear the principle of accessibility in them. 

Hallo, Nick, this is my friend Hakob.

- How do you do, Hakob?
- How do you do, Nick?

A short dialogue on expressing thankfulness and it’s respond.

- May I take your text-book for a minute?
- Here you are.
- Thank you
- Not at all.

The pupils may substitute the word text-book with other words and repeat the dialogue for tens of times.

We distinguish two types of dialogues: prepared and unprepared. Since a dialogue implies activeness and initiative on the part of both speakers, and since the pupils are not able to express themselves freely in the foreign language, unprepared dialogues can only have a limited application at initial stages of foreign language teaching. However the teacher shouldn’t lose the opportunity of challenging the pupils to form a short unprepared dialogue using their active vocabulary and already drilled structures.

 

Linguistic basis of oral exercises based on speech patterns

The linguistic basis of teaching a foreign language must cover all the branches of linguistics: phonetics, the two divisions of grammar-morphology and syntax, lexicology and semantics. But we must always bear in mind that we mustn’t teach the pupils about these branches of linguistics. We must only develop skills and habits of using the knowledge concerning these branches.
For example while introducing the sound [æ] we mustn’t teach our pupils what type of vowel it is, whether it is a back lingual or fore lingual, whether it is high or low.

We must simply pronounce this sound and ask our pupils to imitate it. Afterwards we are to introduce some words where this sound exists: a bag, a cap, a map. 

After having done this we can ask the pupils to recognize this sound in the pronunciations of different words.
For example –
Teacher – table, imagine, smart, fat, enemy, add
We must also bear in mind, as most of the scholars dealing with methods of teaching foreign languages state, that all the branches of linguistics mentioned above mustn’t be taught the pupils separately. For example the lexical unit to be proud of smb/smth can’t be introduced in isolation.
This lexical unit and all the other ones must be taught in sentences where the predicate agrees with the subject in it’s person and number.
I am proud of my father.
He is proud of his father.
We are proud of our city.

In other words while teaching our pupils speaking we can’t do without practical grammar. And on the other hand we mustn’t teach our pupils isolated grammar rules without using them in speech patterns.
The speech material must be arranged in order of increasing complexity. Each pattern must be practised orally until the learners can use it automatically.

Here are some speech patterns to be used for consolidating the usage of the Present Perfect Tense.
Model: Is this article ready? (write)
Yes, he has written it.

1. Are her rooms clean? (do)
2. Is our dinner ready, Mother? (cook)
3. Do you know this sort of pencil? (use)
4. Does she know the poem? (learn)
5. Does he know how nice the cake is? (eat)
6. Do you know that your gloves are on the table? (find)
7. Is Bobby’s face clean? (wash)
8. Do you know how beautiful these songs are? (hear)

Model: Have you got an Oxford dictionary? (buy)
- No, I haven’t bought one yet.

1. Do you know the news? (hear)
2. Has John gone home? (leave)
3. Are you going to the country for the week-end? (think about)
4. Are you doing the work? (begin)
5. Is she his wife now? (marry)
6. Do you like the cake? (taste)
7. Does he know the rules? (learn)
8. Do you want to post the letter today? (write)

Model: Open the door!
- But I’ve already opened it.

1. Ask him what he means!
2. Take the books to the library!
3. Water the flowers!
4. Dust the furniture!
5. Drink some hot milk!
6. Cut the bread!
7. Lay the table for breakfast!
8. Switch the TV set off.
9. Send the magazines to Fred.

Model: Where is Tom’s new shirt? (to put on)
-He’s put it on

1. What has happened to your finger? (cut)
2. Where’s Nelly? (go for a walk)
3. Where is Bobby’s blue cup? (break)
4. Why don’t you wear your new dress?(spoil )
5. Where’s Fred’s bicycle? (sell)
6. Where is her new note-book? (lose)
7. Where is your English text-book? (give away)

Model: page 66

Now let’s commence systemizing the exercises developing the skills and habits of speaking on the linguistic bases.
There are two forms of, speaking: monologue and dialogue.
First of all we should teach the pupils to form their monologue speech so that they can use it in their dialogical speech. There exist three stages in teaching monological speech: a) the statement level; b) the utterance level; c) the discourse level
At statement level pupils are stimulated to perform the following types of drill exercises within the sentence and speech patterns given: Substitution, extension, transformation, combination, completion.

 

Different Types of Exercises For Middle School Learners

I. Substitutional exercises
With the verb to be

Exercise 1

He is a doctor.
-- -- -- teacher.
-- -- -- student.
-- -- -- nurse.
-- -- -- policeman.

Exercise 2

Model – This isn’t a chair. (a table)
It’s a table.
This isn’t a newspaper. (a magazine)
This isn’t a coat. (a jacket)
This isn’t a hat. (a cap)

II. Substitutional exercises

With one verb
The adverbial modifier of place is substituted.

Exercise 1

He eats in a restaurant.
He eats ….
He eats …. 
He eats …
He eats ….


Exercise 2

Here the adverbial modifier of time is substituted
He eats at noon.
…. … at five.
… … in the morning.
… … in the afternoon.

III. Substitutional exercises
With two verbs
Exercise 1

He’ll go to bed when he does his homework. 
…………… … when he gets tired.
………………. when he feels sleepy.

Exercise 2

He won’t go to bed until he finishes his work.
……………………until he gets tired.
…………………… until he feels sleepy.
…………………… until he takes a shave.

IV. Substitutional exercises
With verbals

Exercise 1

It’s time to leave now.
………. to start …..
………. to go ……
………. to go to bed ….


I. Combining exercises
With the verb to be

Model: He is a boy. He is tall.
He is a tall boy.

1. He is a man. He is rich.
2. He is a teacher. He is clever.
3. She is a housewife. She is busy.
4. It is a door. It is white.
5. It’s a chair. It is broken.

Model: It is on the table.
The table is big.
It is on the big table.

1. It is on the table. The table is small.
2. It is on the desk. The desk is square.
3. It is in the bookcase. The bookcase is brown.
4. It is in the bedroom. The bedroom is big.

II. Combining exercises
With one verb

Model: He is eating.
He is in a restaurant.
He is eating in a restaurant.

1. The boys are playing.
They are outdoors.
2. The woman is cooking.
She is in the kitchen.
3. He has got a pencil.
It's in his pocket.
4. She lost her pen.
She was in the park.

III. Combining exercises
With two verbs

Model: The teacher talked.
The students listened.
The teacher talked and the students listened.

1. The teacher asked a question.
Tom answered it.
2. He teaches English.
His wife teaches Russian. 
3. They offered me a job.
I took it.
4. It rained yesterday.
It is going to rain tomorrow.

IV. Combining exercises
With verbals

Model: He heard a shout.
He looked back.
Hearing a shout he looked back.

1. She wanted to read.
She ignored the phone.
2. I needed stamps.
I went to the post-office. 
3. He saw the sign.
He stopped the car.
4. He felt warm.
He took off his coat.


I. Extentional Exercises
With the verb to be

Model: The boy is sick. + tall.
The tall boy is sick.

1. The girl is thirsty. + pretty
2. He is a doctor. + good
3. He is an engineer. + capable 
4. This chair is broken. + old

II. Extentional exercises
With one verb
Model: He ate dinner last night. + in a restaurant.
He ate dinner in a restaurant last night.

1. I put the book on the table. + last night
2. They have painted this year. + the house
3. She left her coat yesterday. + upstairs
4. We drink in the cafeteria every morning. + caffee

III.
With two verbs

Model: The house is very large. + Where I live.
The house where I live is very large.

1. She returned the dress to the shop. + that she had bought.
2. The day was very exciting. + when we moved.
3. He sent the girl an invitation to his party. + that he wants to meet.
4. I sent the boy a postcard. + that I met on my trip.

IV. Extentional exercises 
V. With verbals

Model: That boy is my brother. + smiling.
That smiling boy is my brother.

1. The chair is shaky. + broken
2. He entered the room. + whistling
3. He came up to me. + laughting
4. I saw an old couple. + walking in the park.

Transformational exercises

Model: That girls sing.
The girl sings.

1. The clocks work.
2. The women cook.
3. The boys run.
4. The girls laugh.

Model: I did my lessons (three hours)
It took me three hours to do my lessons.

1. He reached the station. (15 minutes)
2. He wrote that article. (two hours)
3. She has a shower. (20 minutes)
4, You did this work. (a week)

When pupils are taught how to use differnt patterns they are ready to use them together in one utterance.
For example:

Teacher: Say a few words about your bag.
Pupil: My bag is made of leather. It is black. I put my exercise-books, text-book and pens into my bag. Every morning at 830 I take my bag and go to school. It takes me ten minutes to walk to my school.

After pupils have learned how to say a few sentences on a given situation, they are prepared for speaking at discourse bevel. The teacher may conduct a conversation lesson.


Bibliography

Z.Plukhina “ The Way the British Communicate” 1991
M.Swan “ The New Cambridge English Course” 1994
Joe Sheils “ Communication in the Modern Languages Classroom”  

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